Rare Nephrology News

Disease Profile

Buschke-Lowenstein tumor

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


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Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Giant condyloma acuminatum involving the prepuce and glans penis; Giant condyloma of Buschke and Löwenstein; GCBL


Rare Cancers


Buschke-Lowenstein tumor (BLT) is a solid tumor that usually develops around the external genitals or anus. BLT grows slowly into a bulky, cauliflower-shaped mass. It often spreads into surrounding tissues and causes damage. BLT is a sexually transmitted condition caused by specific types of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Risk factors for developing BLT include having a weak immune system, multiple sexual partners, alcoholism, and diabetes. Diagnosis is based on imaging studies and microscopic exam of a small piece of tumor tissue. Treatment includes surgery and possibly chemotherapy, depending on the size of the tumor. Bushke-Lowenstein tumors have a tendency to come back, even after surgical removal. The outcome depends on the size of the tumor and how far it has spread.[1][2][3][4]


The following list includes the most common signs and symptoms in people with Buschke-Lowenstein tumors. These features may be different from person to person. Some people may have more symptoms than others and symptoms can range from mild to severe. This list does not include every symptom or feature that has been described in this condition.

Symptoms may include:[2][3][4]

  • Cauliflower-shaped mass around the external genitals
  • Pain in the area of the mass
  • Abscess or fistulas around the mass
  • Psychological distress

Buschke-Lowenstein tumors are usually slow growing, but they can invade surrounding tissue and cause damage. They have a tendency to come back even after surgical removal. Buschke-Lowenstein tumors do not usually spread to other parts of the body. The long-term outcome for patients depends on the size of the tumor and response to treatment.[2]


Buschke-Lowenstein tumors (BLT) are caused by specific types of human papilloma virus (HPV). People get HPV through sexual contact. Not everyone who has HPV will develop a Buschke-Lowenstein tumor. Other risk factors for BLT include a weak immune system, alcoholism, and diabetes.[1][3]


Buschke-Lowenstein tumors are diagnosed based on the symptoms, clinical exam, imaging studies, and a microscopic exam of a piece of tumor tissue (biopsy).[1][2]


Buschke-Lowenstein tumors are typically treated with surgery to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue. Chemotherapy may be used depending on the size and spread of the tumor.[2][4]

Specialists involved in the treatment of someone with a Buschke-Lowenstein tumor may include:

  • Oncologist
  • Surgeon
  • Plastic surgeon
  • Psychologist


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
    • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Buschke-Lowenstein tumor. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


      1. Ben Kridis W, Werda I, Charfi S, et al. Buschke Lowenstein anal tumor: an ambiguous entity. Exp Oncol. 2019; 41(2):182-184. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31262155.
      2. Fanget F, Pasquer A, Djeudji F, Chabanon J, Barth X. Should the Surgical Management of Buschke-Lowenstein Tumors Be Aggressive? About 10 Cases. Dig Surg. 2017; 34(3):247-252. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27941342.
      3. Spinu D, Radulescu A, Bratu O, et al. Giant condyloma acuminatum Buschke-Lowenstein disease a literature review. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2014; 109(4):445-450. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25149605.
      4. Jorgaqi E, Jafferany M. Giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Lowenstein tumor): Combined treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Dermatol Ther. 2020; 33(1):e13193. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31837245.

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