Rare Nephrology News

Disease Profile

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is a rare disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs in association with physical activity. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a subset of this disorder in which symptoms develop if exertion takes place within a few hours of eating a specific food. In the case of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, neither the food nor the exercise alone is enough to cause anaphylaxis.[1] Vigorous forms of physical activity, such as jogging, are more commonly associated with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, although lower levels of exertion (eg, walking and yard work) are also capable of triggering attacks.[1] However, the condition can be unpredictable; a given level of exercise may cause an episode on one occasion but not another.[2] Symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis may include itching, hives (urticaria), flushing, extreme fatigue, and wheezing. Affected individuals may also experience nausea, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. Continuing the physical activity causes the symptoms to become worse. However, if the individual stops the activity when the symptoms first appear, there is usually improvement within minutes. [1][2] In most cases, these conditions are sporadic , though familial cases have been reported.[2]

Treatment

Prevention remains the best treatment for patients with exercise-induced anaphylaxis.[1] Management should include education about safe conditions for exercise, identification and avoidance of offending foods, the importance of stopping exercise immediately if symptoms develop, the appropriate use of epinephrine, and the importance of having epinephrine available at all times. Patients may also be advised to wear a medical alert bracelet with instructions on the use of epinephrine.[1][2] The following factors may increase the risk of an exercise-induced attack and are often considered co-factors: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alcohol, certain phases of the menstrual cycle, temperature extremes, and seasonal pollen exposure.[2] As a result, patients may be advised to minimize their exposure to these risk factors.[1]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

      References

      1. Huynh, Peter N.. Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis. Medscape. November 17, 2015; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/886641-overview. Accessed 10/12/2016.
      2. Feldweg, Anna.. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2015 May; 35(2):261-275. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25841550. Accessed 10/12/2016.

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