Rare Nephrology News

Disease Profile

Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

#N/A

ICD-10

#N/A

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

no.svg

Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

no.svg

X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

no.svg

X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

no.svg

Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

no.svg

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

no.svg

Not applicable

no.svg

Summary

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a life-threatening infection of the brain caused by the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia pedata. Acanthamoeba species, are commonly found in lakes, swimming pools, tap water, and heating and air conditioning units. The disease affects immunocompromised peple and is very serious. Symptoms include mental status changes, loss of coordination, fever, muscular weakness or partial paralysis affecting one side of the body, double vision, sensitivity to light and other neurologic problems. The diagnosis is difficult and is often made at advanced stages. Tests useful in the diagnosis include brain scans, biopsies, or spinal taps and in disseminated disease, biopsy of the involved sites and testing by the laboratory experts. Early diagnosis is important for the prognosis. No single drug is effective; hence multiple antibiotics are needed for successful treatment. A combination of surgical and medical interventions involving multiple specialty experts is required to prevent death and morbidity in survivors.[1][2]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.

References

  1. Parija SC, Dinoop KP, & Venugopal H. Management of granulomatous amebic encephalitis: Laboratory diagnosis and treatment. Trop Parasitol. January 22, 2015; 5(1):23–28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326989/. Accessed 6/24/2015.
  2. Acanthamoeba Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE); Keratitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 22, 2013; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/acanthamoeba/. Accessed 6/24/2015.