Rare Nephrology News

Disease Profile

Hyperprolinemia type 2

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

1 alpha pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase deficiency; Type 2 hyperprolinemia; Hyperprolinemia type 2

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Metabolic disorders; Nervous System Diseases;

Summary

Hyperprolinemia type 2 results in an excess of a particular protein building block (amino acid), called proline, in the blood. This condition generally occurs when proline is not broken down properly by the body. Hyperprolinemia type 2 causes proline levels in the blood to be 10 to 15 times higher than normal, and it also causes high levels of a related compound called pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Some people with this condition develop mild intellectual disability and seizures; however, the symptoms of this disorder vary in severity among affected individuals.[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal recessive inheritance
0000007
Hydroxyprolinuria
Elevated urinary hydroxyproline
0003080
Hyperglycinuria
High urine glycine levels
0003108
Hyperprolinemia
0008358
Intellectual disability
Mental deficiency
Mental retardation
Mental retardation, nonspecific
Mental-retardation

[ more ]

0001249
Prolinuria
0003137
Seizure
0001250

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • Orphanet lists international laboratories offering diagnostic testing for this condition.

    Newborn Screening

    • The Newborn Screening Coding and Terminology Guide has information on the standard codes used for newborn screening tests. Using these standards helps compare data across different laboratories. This resource was created by the National Library of Medicine.

      Treatment

      There is no specific treatment for hyperprolinemia type 2, even for those individuals who experience seizures. In general, if people with hyperprolinemia type 2 have symptoms, they are usually mild and do not require treatment. If seizures are present during childhood, they tend to disappear in adulthood. Attempts to reduce the amount of proline in an affected person's diet have resulted in only modest control of proline levels in the blood and have not reduced symptoms.[2]

      Organizations

      Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

      Organizations Supporting this Disease

        Learn more

        These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

        Where to Start

        • MedlinePlus Genetics contains information on Hyperprolinemia type 2. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
        • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

          In-Depth Information

          • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
          • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
          • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
          • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Hyperprolinemia type 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

            References

            1. Hyperprolinemia. Genetics Home Reference Website . June 2007; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=hyperprolinemia. Accessed 11/3/2008.
            2. Phang JM, Hu CA, Valle D. Disorders of proline and hydroxyproline metabolism. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001; 2:1821-1838.
            3. Flynn MP, Martin MC, Moore PT, Stafford JA, Fleming GA, Phang JM. Archives of Disease in Childhood. December 1989; 64(12):1699-1707. https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=2624476. Accessed 11/3/2008.

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