Rare Nephrology News

Disease Profile

Pulmonary venous return anomaly

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset



Q26.2 Q26.3 Q26.4


Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Anomalous pulmonary venous return; APVR; Total anomalous pulmonary venous return;


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 3090

A rare developmental defect during embryogenesis where some or all of the pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or the systemic veins, with or without the presence of pulmonary venous obstruction, leading to various manifestations such as fatigue, exertional dyspnea, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cyanosis and progressive congestive heart failure. The two main subtypes are congenital partial pulmonary venous return anomaly (PAPVC; see this term), where one or a few of the pulmonary veins are anomalous, and congenital total pulmonary venous return anomaly (TAPVC, see this term), where all of the pulmonary veins are anomalous.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal cardiac septum morphology
Anomalous pulmonary venous return
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Respiratory insufficiency
Respiratory impairment
Tapered distal phalanges of finger
Tapered outermost finger bone
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the nails
Absent/small nails
Absent/underdeveloped nails

[ more ]

Autosomal dominant inheritance
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Increased blood pressure in blood vessels of lungs
Recurrent respiratory infections
Frequent respiratory infections
Multiple respiratory infections
respiratory infections, recurrent
Susceptibility to respiratory infections

[ more ]

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Pulmonary venous return anomaly. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.